2020 END Wildlife Trafficking Report – News

Bureau
of
Oceans
and
International
Environmental
and
Scientific
Affairs

Report
to
Congress
on
Major
Wildlife
Trafficking
Countries
Eliminate,
Neutralize,
and
Disrupt
(END)
Wildlife
Trafficking
Act
of
2016
P.L.
114-231,
Section
201

2020
Report

The
Eliminate,
Neutralize,
and
Disrupt
(END)
Wildlife
Trafficking
Act
(P.L.
114-231;
16
U.S.C.
§§ 7601-7644)
(the
Act)
directs
the
Secretary
of
State,
in
consultation
with
the
Secretary
of
the
Interior
and
the
Secretary
of
Commerce,
to
submit
to
Congress
a
report
that
lists
Focus
Countries
and
Countries
of
Concern,
as
defined
in
the
Act.

Wildlife
trafficking
remains
a
serious
transnational
crime
that
threatens
security,
economic
prosperity,
the
rule
of
law,
long-standing
conservation
efforts,
and
human
health. 
President
Trump,
in
Executive
Order
13773
(February
9,
2017),
called
for
a
comprehensive
and
decisive
approach
to
dismantle
organized
crime
syndicates
and
specifically
recognized
the
connection
between
wildlife
trafficking
and
transnational
criminal
organizations.

The
Task
Force
on
Wildlife
Trafficking
(Task
Force),
co-chaired
by
the
Secretary
of
State,
the Secretary
of
the
Interior,
and
the
Attorney
General,
brings
together
17
federal
departments
and agencies
to
implement
the
National
Strategy
for
Combating
Wildlife
Trafficking
(the
“National Strategy”). 
The
U.S.
government’s
three-pronged
approach
to
combating
wildlife
trafficking

strengthening
law
enforcement,
reducing
demand,
and
building
international
cooperation

deprives
criminals
of
a
key
source
of
financing,
reducing
the
criminal
threat
posed
to
U.S.
citizens.

The
Task
Force’s
work
to
combat
wildlife
trafficking
is
making
a
difference
on
the
ground
at
home
and
worldwide. 
Task
Force
efforts
and
activities
are
better
coordinated
across
the
USG:
 efficiencies
are
identified
and
exploited,
redundancies
eliminated,
and
resources
used
more
strategically;
international
outreach
continues
to
expand;
and
improved
intelligence
has
identified
new
areas
of
work.
 Working
in
partnership
with
the
private
sector,
local
communities,
and
NGOs,
the
United
States
has
led
the
way
globally,
securing
agreements
and
commitments
from
governments
and
stakeholders
at
all
levels
to
take
urgent
action. 
Highlights
of
Task
Force
efforts
are
included
in
the
separate
Strategic
Review,
as
called
for
in
Section
301(d)
of
the
END
Wildlife
Trafficking
Act.

To
improve
accountability
and
reporting
on
strategy
implementation,
the
Task
Force
developed
14 indicators
for
monitoring
U.S.
government-supported
actions
to
address
wildlife
trafficking
in
Focus
Countries. 
Ten
indicators
measure
inputs,
outputs,
or
outcomes
of
law
enforcement
capacity
building
and
cooperation
efforts,
policy
reform,
and
demand
reduction
actions
tailored
to
each
country.
 Four
indicators
measure
dimensions
of
how
seriously
wildlife
crime
is
perceived
or
addressed
in
each
country.
 U.S.
missions
in
all
original
26
Focus
Countries
reported
indicator
data
in
2019.
 Almost
every
post
reported
that
host
countries
conducted
capacity
building
for
law
enforcement
in
2019,
and
over
half
reported
that
there
were
seizures
of
wildlife
or
wildlife
products
attributable
to
USG
engagement.
 Nearly
half
of
posts
described
demand-reduction
efforts
in
2019,
representing
an
increasingly
sophisticated
and
targeted
response
to
the
root
causes
of
wildlife
trafficking.

Focus
Countries


Methodology
for
Determining
Original
26
Focus
Countries
The
Department
of
State
worked
closely
with
the
other
agencies
of
the
Task
Force
to
employ
both
qualitative
and
quantitative
information
to
identify
Focus
Countries
and
Countries
of
Concern,
as
defined
in
Section
2
of
the
Act,
for
the
2017
END
Act
Report. 
Technical
experts
and
scientists
from
Task
Force
agencies
established
a
process
to
analyze
wildlife
trafficking
information
and
gathered
a
set
of
relevant
and
available
data.
 This
analysis
included
evaluation
of
data
drawn
from
public
reporting
by
USG
agencies,
international
entities
such
as
the
Convention
on
International
Trade
in
Endangered
Species
of
Wild
Fauna
and
Flora
(CITES),
the
International
Union
for
the
Conservation
of
Nature,
and
the
UN
Office
of
Drugs
and
Crime,
as
well
as
NGOs
such
as
the
Center
for
Advanced
Defense
Studies,
TRAFFIC,
the
Environmental
Investigation
Agency,
and
Transparency
International. 
Information
from
the
required
national
assessments
reinforced
and
augmented
our
previous
findings.

Task
Force
agencies,
including
those
represented
at
U.S.
missions
overseas,
reviewed
the
initial
analysis
and
provided
additional
information
that
was
often
only
available
locally. 
These
country-specific
analyses
helped
to
round
out
the
global
data,
including
by
providing
information
on
additional
species
such
as
felines,
primates,
and
marine
species. 
Agencies
also
considered
the
trajectory
of
wildlife
populations
and
trafficking’s
impact
on
that
trajectory,
government
and
private
sector
efforts
to
prevent
illegal
trade,
and
the
presence
of
legal
or
poorly
regulated
domestic
markets
for
species
threatened
by
wildlife
trafficking.

The
Task
Force
further
evaluated
whether
governments
had
recently
taken
steps
to
improve
legislation,
regulations,
and/or
enforcement
and
other
trends
such
that
the
country
is
stepping
up
its
efforts
to
combat
the
illegal
trade
in
wildlife.
Subsequent
to
the
initial
26
Focus
Countries
identified
in
2017,
the
2019
report
listed
an
additional
two
Focus
Countries.


2020
Focus
Countries
The
Department
of
State,
in
consultation
with
the
Departments
of
the
Interior
and
Commerce,
and
with
USAID,
agreed
that
all
28
countries
and
jurisdictions
listed
as
Focus
Countries
in
the
2019
END
Act
Report
should
remain. 
Each
country
previously
listed
continues
to
be
a
“major
source
of
wildlife
trafficking
products
or
their
derivatives,
a
major
transit
point
of
wildlife
trafficking
products
or
their
derivatives,
or
a
major
consumer
of
wildlife
trafficking
products,”
and
designation
that
appears
to
have
contributed
to
increased
attention
to
combating
wildlife
trafficking
in
some
Focus
Countries.

Consistent
with
Section
301
of
the
END
Act,
U.S.
missions
in
each
Focus
Country
developed
a
strategic
plan,
based
on
the
U.S.
mission
assessment
of
wildlife
trafficking
within
that
country. 
U.S.
agencies
used
the
strategic
plans
to
guide
and
coordinate
U.S.
government
approaches
and
responses
to
the
needs
and
gaps
identified
in
the
assessment. 
The
Task
Force
co-chairs,
along
with
USAID,
developed
and
distributed
templates
for
both
the
assessments
and
Strategic
Plans. 
All
Task
Force
agencies,
both
at
post
and
in
Washington,
were
invited
to
contribute
to
their
development. 
The
Task
Force
reviewed
for
completeness
and
consistency,
recognizing
variability
based
on
location
in
the
supply
chain,
resources
within
the
U.S.
mission,
and
previous
engagement
in
the
issue.

U.S.
missions
in
all
Focus
Countries
have
completed
their
assessments
and
only
the
U.S.
Mission
to
Zimbabwe
has
yet
to
submit
its
Strategic
Plan.
 Together
these
documents
provide
an
overview
of
the
issues
related
to
wildlife
trafficking
in
that
country,
identify
key
areas
for
strategic
intervention
by
the
U.S.
government,
and
either
establish
a
new
platform
or
support
existing
structures
within
the
mission
to
guide
a
coordinated,
“whole
of
government”
approach
to
interventions.
 In
some
cases,
the
development
of
the
National
Strategy
brought
together
for
the
first
time
all
U.S.
government
resources
and
agencies
working
in
this
arena,
providing
a
clear
view
of
the
entire
landscape
of
U.S.
government
support.
 For
some,
the
assessments
and
strategies
offered
the
opportunity
to
elevate
wildlife
trafficking
as
an
important
security
and
economic
issue,
not
only
within
the
mission
but
also
within
the
respective
host
government.

To
assess
new
potential
Focus
Countries,
the
Task
Force
analyzed
a
compilation
of
seizure
information
derived
from
government
data
sets,
popular
media
reports,
and
other
sources
that
reflect
reported
illegal
wildlife
trade
seizures
around
the
world. 
The
analysis
focused
on
data
from
2013
to
the
present
for
CITES-listed
species. 
Countries
were
then
ranked
by
total
number
of
reported
seizures,
and
nine
new
countries
were
identified
for
further
review.
 The
Task
Force
then
requested
additional
information
from
the
U.S.
missions
in
those
countries
and
jurisdictions. 
The
additional
information
was
reviewed
to
determine
whether
other
countries
should
be
added. 
For
the
2020
Report,
no
new
Focus
Countries
have
been
added.

This
determination
is
based
on
our
analysis
of
the
statutory
criteria
in
the
END
Act
and
does
not
reflect
a
positive
or
negative
judgment
of
the
listed
countries
or
indicate
that
these
countries
are
not
working
diligently
to
combat
wildlife
trafficking. 
Indeed,
the
United
States
has
longstanding
partnerships
with
many
of
these
countries
with
respect
to
combating
wildlife
trafficking
and
recognizes
the
strong
political
will
that
already
exists
in
many
of
these
countries
to
tackle
this
problem. 
The
Department
of
State
and
other
Task
Force
agencies
look
forward
to
continuing
close
and
constructive
relationships
with
these
countries
as
we
work
collaboratively
to
combat
wildlife
trafficking.


2020
Focus
Country
List
(in
alphabetical
order)
Bangladesh
Brazil
Burma
Cambodia
Cameroon
Democratic
Republic
of
the
Congo
Gabon
Hong
Kong
Special
Administrative
Region
India
Indonesia
Kenya
Laos
Madagascar
Malaysia
Mexico
Mozambique
Nigeria
People’s
Republic
of
China
Philippines
Republic
of
the
Congo
South
Africa
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Uganda
United
Arab
Emirates
Vietnam
Zimbabwe

Countries
of
Concern


2020
Countries
of
Concern
To
identify
Countries
of
Concern
as
directed
by
Section
201(b)
of
the
Act,
the
Department
of
State,
in
consultation
with
the
Departments
of
the
Interior
and
Commerce
and
other
agencies
of
the
Task
Force,
reviewed
publicly
available
information
as
well
as
classified
material
that
indicated
governments
actively
engaged
in
or
knowingly
profited
from
the
trafficking
of
endangered
or
threatened
species. 
In
2020,
no
Countries
of
Concern
were
removed
from
the
list,
and
Cambodia,
Cameroon,
and
Nigeria
were
added. 
This
designation
does
not
indicate
that
all
parts
of
the
government
are
or
have
been
involved
in
wildlife
trafficking,
but
there
are
serious
concerns
that
either
high-level
or
systemic
government
involvement
has
occurred. 
The
Task
Force
will,
among
other
things,
ensure
that
U.S.
government
agencies
coordinate
efforts
among
U.S.
federal
agencies ​and
non-federal
partners,
to implement
the
U.S.
mission
strategic
plans
developed
in
accordance
with
section
301
of
the
Act,
with
a
view
to
supporting
these
countries and
their
governments to reduce trade
in
and
consumer
demand
for
illegally
traded
wildlife
and
wildlife
products.


2020
Countries
of
Concern
List
(in
alphabetical
order)
Cambodia
Cameroon
Democratic
Republic
of
the
Congo
Laos
Madagascar
Nigeria




Note: 
This
list
includes
both
countries
and
jurisdictions.

For
more
information
on
U.S.
Government
efforts
in
combating
wildlife
trafficking,
please
see:



2020
END
Wildlife
Trafficking
Strategic
Review

Source: Sam News

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